This week we finished grading of the software architecture course I’m teaching.
Like many teachers, I use a spreadsheet for grading together with my co-teachers and teaching assistants. In this case, we concurrently worked with five people on a Google Spreadsheet. The resulting spreadsheet is quite interesting:
- The spreadsheet currently has 22 sheets (tabs)
There are input sheets for basic information on the over one hundred students in the class, the groups they form, and the rubrics we use.
There are input sheets from various forms the students used to enter course-related information
There are input sheets for different sub-assignments, which the teachers and assistants use to enter subgrades for each rubric: Some grades are individual, others are per team. Such sheets also contain basic formulas to compute grades from rubrics.
There are overview sheets collecting the sub-grades from various sheets, combining them to overall grades. The corresponding formulas can become quite tricky, involving rounding, lookups, sumproducts, thresholds, conditional logic based on absence or presence of certain grades, etc.
There are various output sheets, to report grades to students, to export grades to the university’s administrative systems, and to offer diagrams showing grade distributions for educational assessments of the course.
The spreadsheet used has a history of five years: Each year we take the existing one, copy it, and remove the student data. We then adjust it to the changes we made to the course (additional assignments, new grading policies, better rubrics, etc).
All in all, this spreadsheet has grown quite complex, and it is easy to make a mistake. For example, I once released incorrect grades — a rather stressful event both for my students and myself. And all I did wrong was forgetting the infamous
false argument needed in a
vlookup — despite the fact that I was well aware of this “feature”. For the this year’s spreadsheet we had duplicate student ids, in a column where each row had to be unique, leading to a missing grade, and again extra effort and stress to resolve this as soon as possible.
I suspect that if you use spreadsheets seriously, for example for grading, you recognize the characteristics of my spreadsheet — and maybe your sheets are even more complicated.
Now I have an interest in spreadsheets that goes beyond that of the casual user: As a software engineering researcher, I have looked extensively at spreadsheets. I did this together with Felienne Hermans, first when she was doing her PhD under my supervision in the context of the Perplex project (co-funded by Microsoft) and then in the context of the Prose project (funded by the Dutch STW agency). From a research perspective, these projects were certainly successful, leading to a series of publications in such venues as ECOOP 2010, ICSE 2011-2013, ICSM, EMSE, and SANER.
But we did our research not just to publish papers: We also had (and have) the ambition to actually help the working spreadsheet user, as well as large organizations that depend on spreadsheets for business-critical decision making.
To that end, we founded a company, Infotron, which offers tooling, services, consultancy, and training to help organizations and individuals become more effective with their spreadsheets.
After several years of operating somewhat under the radar, the Infotron team (headed by CEO Matéo Mol) has now launched an on line service, PerfectXL, in which users can upload a spreadsheet and get it analyzed. The service then helps in the following ways:
- PerfectXL can visualize the architectural dependencies between sheets, as shown above for my course sheet;
- PerfectXL can identify risks (such as the vlookup I mentioned, interrupted ranges, or overly complex conditional logic);
- PerfectXL can assess the structure and quality of the formulas in your sheet.
If this sounds interesting, you can try out the service for free at perfectxl.com. There are various pricing options that help Infotron run and further grow this service — pick the subscription that suits you and your organization best!
Even if you decide not to use the PerfectXL service, the site contains a lot of generally useful information, such as various hints and tips on how to create and maintain well-structured spreadsheets.